What are engine oils made of?
The so-called base oils make up the largest part of a modern motor oil.
In addition, there are the active ingredient components also called additives or additive packages.
The correct interaction of both components results in a high-performance engine oil.
In terms of quantity, the base oils are the basis for a modern motor oil.
The base oils can be divided into 5 groups:
Group I: so-called naphthenic oils, main component of a well-known 10W-40 formulation
Group II: Successor to Group I, more modern and efficient
Group III: so-called HC (hydrocrack) oils or partial synthesis oils. Main component of a modern 5W-30 formulation, for example
Group IV: PAO (Poly Alpha Olefine) - fully synthetic oils, main component of the latest eg 0W-20 formulation
Group V: Ester oils, (also on a vegetable basis)
It is important to find the right combination of the individual base oils when developing the engine oil.
In Germany, a motor oil may only carry the designation "fully synthetic oil" if the base consists entirely of fully synthetic base oils, i.e. group IV (PAO's). In the USA, for example, mixtures from Group III are allowed to carry the designation fully synthetic oil.
The whole thing is rounded off by the active ingredient components, the so-called additives.
These are strictly confidential components of the respective manufacturers and are developed and checked for suitability in extensive tests.
The manufacturer continuously checks the effectiveness and compatibility so that the quality of a high-quality, modern motor oil meets the vehicle manufacturer's specifications in every situation.